For&Against Essays

For and Against Essays
(и к Advantage / Disadvantage, но для ЕГЭ разводки нет)

Pattern 1 :
INTRO:
Present situ: ... ...
...One side: ... ...
...Other side: ... ...
(Weak) THESIS (облегченный): ... ...

BODY
Para 1: (FOR)
Opening sentence 1 (TOPIC sentence 1 — тезис, основная мысль абзаца): ....
...Reason/argument/problem 1: ... ...
...........Supp.detail (+ example): ... ...
...Reason/argument/problem 2: ... ...
...........Supp.detail (+ example): ... ...
...Reason/argument/problem 3:
...........Supp.detail (+ example): )

Para 2: (AGAINST)
Opening sentence 1 (TOPIC sentence 2):
REASON /argument/problem 2: ... ...
...........Supp.detail (+ example): ... ...
REASON/argument/problem 2: ... ...
...........Supp.detail (+ example): ... ...
(REASON/argument/problem 3: ... ...
...........Supp.detail (+ example): ... ... )
(Summary/Extra Info:)

CONCLUSION/SUMMARY:
....One side: ... ...
....Other side: ... ...
Future:

INTRODUCTION (Фразы для введения)

Фразы, выражающие общее мнение:

...As a general rule,.../ Generally,…/ In general,…
...It is (popularly) believed / suggested that…
...Some / A lot of / Many people claim / argue / think / believe / are convinced that…
...Some / Many people are in favour of...
Others are against...

WEAK THESIS:

....This essay will look at /analyze / examine / discuss /outline / consider / describe (.....)
…..In this essay, I will look at /analyze / examine / discuss /outline / consider / describe (.....)*

----------
(...)* some arguments for and against sth // both advantages and disadvantages of sth // both positive and negative aspects of sth // (some) ideas in favour of and against sth //benefits and drawbacks// etc).(Sth= sth/doing sth)
Это завершающее предложение INTRO.

BODY (Фразы основной части)

Listing advantages and disadvantages, перечисление преимуществ и недостатков :

The main / The first / The greatest / The most important / One major / One (dis)advantage of ... is ...

Another / One other / A further (dis)advantage of ...is ...

One point of view in favour of / against…
The best / worst thing about……is…



Фразы, перечисляющие аспекты обсуждаемой проблемы:


Firstly,…………/ First of all,… / In the first place,… /To start with,…… / To begin with,………
Secondly,…/ Thirdly,…
Last but not least,…/ Finally,……

Фразы, добавляющие новые аспекты обсуждаемой проблеме

Furthermore,……. / Moreover,…….. / What is more,…..….
More importantly, ...
As well as……
In addition to this / that…..
More importantly, ...
Besides ,…………/ ……….. also…….
Not only………, but………as well.
Apart from this / that,……..
……….not to mention the fact that……..……….

Giving a reason (выражение причины)

……..because (of)……../ owing to the fact that…../ due to the fact that….

The reason why…. is that……..
What I like / dislike about….is……
This would mean………
By doing this……….
As a result (of this)

Contrasting ideas
Фразы, подчеркивающие контраст:

…but…../ ……at the same time…
On the other hand,….
...however …/ …yet…. / …nevertheless .../ (... nonetheless)
Although… / Even though…
Despite / despite the fact that
In spite of / in spite of the fact that
While
Whereas
Unlike

Фразы, приводящие пример, доказательство, аргументацию:

For example,………. / For instance,………
……..such as………../ ……like………
………in particular, ……../ particularly……
………..especially……
......namely

Выражение личного мнения:
см.
[Opinion Essays]

CONCLUSION
Заключительные фразы:


On the whole,……
On balance, ...
In conclusion ,…
To conclude ,…
To sum up, ……
All things considered,..
Taking everything into account,…
Taking everything into consideration,……
All in all,…

To put it in a nutshell
Finally,………
Lastly,....

После {In conclusion, / All things considered,... /On balance,... /etc} вместо opinion expressions можно использовать выражения типа:

...although it must be said / concluded that...
...it can /must /may be said/ claimed /concluded that...
...it is true to say that...

...it would seem that
...it is likely /unlikely / possible / forseeable that...
......it is clear / apparent / plain / obvious / evident (from the above evidence / points / arguments) that...
...there is little /no doubt that...

...the best course of action would be to...
...achieveing a balance between... would be to...
... it would seem that a better balance between {X} and {Y} is the answer to the problems of {Z}.

...there is no absolute answer to the question of...,
...this controversy is many years from being resolved.

This debate will undoubtedly continue for some time. However, it would seem that a better balance between {X} and {Y} is the answer to the problems of {Z}.
......This debate will undoubtedly continue for some time. However, it would seem that a better balance between free trade and fair trade is the answer to the problems of globalization.

Комментарии

Вот ещё несколько. Все ли

Вот ещё несколько. Все ли сгодятся для ЕГЭ?
Others believe…
It is often said/suggested that… However, in my opinion, …
I will discuss both points of view and express my opinion on the matter.
Let’s look at the problem from two different perspectives.
There are three main reasons why I think so.
There are points for and against this statement.
Another argument against is that…
Smth has a number of benefits.
However, there are also disadvantages. The most important of these is that…
This is true up to a point.
A second/third benefit is that…
Another point is that
In the end, eventually, lastly
Finally, it is worth stating|remembering that…
As a result/therefore/consequently…
Equally
Likewise
On top of all that
Plus
Turning to the question of…
Leaving aside the question of…
Even if/though
Although a number of people think that…, it is also the case that…
While it is true that…, on the other hand it might mean…
In contrast,
Smth and smth are poles apart.
There is a world of difference/a great divide/a yawning gap/a huge discrepancy between smth and smth.
In other words
That is to say
Specifically
To put it another way
In sum,…
In summary,…
As it was previously stated,

On balance then I feel that…
In my opinion, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages.
The benefits of… can be long term but the disadvantages are only temporary.

____ Study Skill: presenting

____ Study Skill: presenting arguments (1)____
in acadamic writing it is important to present arguments in a consistent way.
You can do this:
BY TOPIC, e.g. a paragraph on food (positive and negative), then a paragraph on cars (positive and negative)
or
BY VIEWPOINT, e.g. paragraphs on the positive points, then paragraphs on the negative points.

____Study Skill: presenting arguments (2)____
It is important to stage your arguments clearly. Use words and phrases such as:

The main / The first / The greatest / The most important / One major / One (dis)advantage of {X} is (that) ...
The main argument (for/against..) is
An argument in favour of {X} is that

Another / One other / A further (dis)advantage of {X}...is (that) .../ in the first place, ..../ First(ly), ... ...
Another strong argument is../ in the second place,.../ Second(ly), ...

One point of view in favour of / against…
The best / worst thing about……is…

It is also important to note that .. /Another point is .../ Last(ly), ... / Finally, ...