cut sb to the quick

cut sb to the quick (to hurt someone’s feelings very badly) — задеть за живое; больно задеть, больно ранить; причинить боль

Example 1: My wife's criticism cut me to the quick.
Example 2: Jim's sharp words to his daughter cut her to the quick.

Also
touch/hit a raw nerve — to upset someone by something you say

Example: Seeing his face, Joanne realized she'd touched a raw nerve. — Судя по его лицу, Джоан поняла, что задела его за живое. (LDOCE)

See also
[задеть за живое]
[hit one where one lives]